Between the end of the World War II and the establishment of the two German states, the FRG and the GDR, the base for the division of Germany are laid. Already in the 50's, East Germany, with the support of the Soviets, prepares the separation of the east, in order to prevent the constant stream of eastern refugees to the West of Germany, which numbered up to 200.000 per year.


 September 12th 1944 ______________________

London Procokol


In the London Protocol, the USA, Great Britain and the USSR decide on the division of Germany and Berlin into three (later four) zones of occupation. This partition lays the cornerstone for the later division of Germany.

 May 8th 1945 _______________________________

End of World War II


Nazi Germany surrenders unconditionally. The allies win world war II and take over the administration of the zones of occupation and the sectors of Berlin.

 December 4th 1946 ________________________

Demarcation lines


The Soviet military administration (SMAD) orders the securing of the demarcation lines of the Soviet zone of occupation – a forebear of the later enclosure of the east.

 1949 _______________________________________

Formation of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)


The different rates of development in East and West Germany lead to a substantial economic gap. While the economy of the FRG prospers thanks to the US Marshall Plan, the dependency of the East German economy on the Soviets leads gradually into a shortage Economy. There is in addition an increasing political repression in the GDR. The result – Solely prior to 1961 over 3.1 million people leave East Germany.

 May 26th 1952 ______________________________

Closing of the
Demarcation Lines


The GDR closes the demarcation lines to the FRG and West Berlin and thereby undertakes a first attempt to contain the movements of people between East and West Germany.

 November 27th 1958______________________



The Soviet Union demands the status of a „Free City” for West Berlin. It withdraws unilaterally from the Four-Power Status of Berlin. West Berlin is to become a demilitarized „Free City” within six months. Otherwise the Soviet Union would transfer its Berlin-Rights to the GDR.

 September 8th 1960 _______________________

Visa regulation


The East German department of the interior issues a decree, according to which the entry of West Germans to East Berlin is from now on subject to approval.